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Creatine

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Other Names


General

  • Legal substance available over the counter, but it is abused by athletes who take amounts greater than the recommended dose or for prolonged periods of time.

Performance Enhancing Effects

  • Increases strength and power in high intensity exercises over a short duration of time [1]
  • Increases lean body mass [2]

Medical Indications


Adverse Effects

  • Some side effects of creatine are due to its osmotic effect, which decreases urinary volume and causes urinary retention.
    • This can lead to increased risk for muscle cramps, heat-related illness, and dehydration. [3]
  • A more serious side effect is an increased risk for compartment syndrome due to its osmotic effects
  • There has been a case report of acute hepatotoxicity in a patient who took creatine above the recommended dose [4]
    • There is no standard dose of creatine, but 0.07 g/kg of body weight has been suggested in the literature [5]

Mechanism

  • Leads to increased creatine, which is used to increase ATP production by cells in need of high energy requirements. [6]
  • May increase creatine phosphate storage and water retention.

WADA Considerations

  • Not banned by WADA.

See Also


References

  1. Greydanus DE, Patel DR. Sports Doping in the Adolescent: The Faustian Conundrum of Hors De Combat. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2010. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2010.02.008
  2. Greydanus DE, Patel DR. Sports Doping in the Adolescent: The Faustian Conundrum of Hors De Combat. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2010. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2010.02.008
  3. Kim J, Lee J, Kim S, Yoon D, Kim J, Sung DJ. Role of creatine supplementation in exercise-induced muscle damage: A mini review. J Exerc Rehabil. 2015. doi:10.12965/jer.150237
  4. Butts J, Jacobs B, Silvis M. Creatine Use in Sports. Sports Health. 2018. doi:10.1177/1941738117737248
  5. Butts J, Jacobs B, Silvis M. Creatine Use in Sports. Sports Health. 2018. doi:10.1177/1941738117737248
  6. Havenetidis K. The use of creatine supplements in the military. J R Army Med Corps. 2016. doi:10.1136/jramc-2014-000400

Created by:
Khashayar ( Khash ) Farzam on 12 July 2019 02:56:13
Last edited:
21 July 2019 18:08:03