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Other Names


  • Substance that is similar in structure to methamphetamine which has similar, albeit milder, effects

Performance Enhancing Effects

  • Increase energy, stamina, muscle strength, and fat loss
  • Sensation of feeling high or stimulated

Medical Indications

  • Asthma due to activity as a bronchial smooth muscle relaxer
  • Allergies due to decongestant properties

Adverse Effects

  • Tremors, irritability, headache, dizziness
  • Confusion, anxiety, hallucinations, psychosis, convulsions
  • Difficulty with respiration
  • Rapid, irregular heartbeat
  • Significantly elevated blood pressure
  • Myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, CHF


  • Increase release of noradrenaline and stimulates alpha and beta receptors
    • This leads to increased peripheral vasoconstriction which leads to increased blood pressure
    • There is also increased heart rate and cardiac output

WADA Considerations


  • Stimulant toxidromes should be treated with benzodiazepines
  • Rarely, phentolamine sulfate 5 mg IV or 100 mg po
  • Dexamethasone for life threatening hyperpyrexia
  • Consider consult with medical toxicologist or poison control

See Also


Created by:
Khashayar ( Khash ) Farzam on 12 July 2019 02:56:48
Last edited:
13 July 2019 01:14:21