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Persistent Post Concussive Syndrome

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Other Names

  • Post Concussion Syndrome
  • PCS



Risk Factors for Prolonged Recovery

  • Migraines
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • History of multiple concussions/overlapping concussions
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)
  • Learning disability
  • Post-traumatic stress shortly after injury (~5 days)
  • Young athletes
  • Females historically are more symptomatic and take longer to recover than males
    • Learning disability and ADHD as risk factors have recently come into question as a risk factor [1]

Differential Diagnosis

  • Intracranial injury
    • Epidural or subdural hematoma
  • Heat illness
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Dehydration
  • Syncope
  • Cranial Nerve Injury
  • Primary headache
    • Migraine, tension, cluster
  • Psychiatric disorder
    • ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, Acute stress disorder, Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Overtraining syndrome
  • Malingering

Clinical Features



  • Grading concussions based on symptoms or loss of consciousness is not recommended


Return to Sport

Return to Learn


See Also


  1. Iverson GL , Gardner AJ , Terry DP , et al . Predictors of clinical recovery from concussion: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2017;51:941–8.
Created by:
Haley Chizuk on 31 August 2020 15:50:52
Last edited:
31 August 2020 15:50:52