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  • Role of scapula[1]
    • Provides synchronous scapular rotation during humeral motion
    • Serves as a stable base for Rotator Cuff activation
    • Functions as a link in the kinetic chain
  • Planes of motion[2]
    • Upward/downward rotation around a horizontal axis perpendicular to the plane of the scapula
    • Internal/external rotation around a vertical axis through the plane of the scapula
    • Anterior/posterior tilt around a horizontal axis in the plane of the scapula
  • Planes of translation
    • Upward/downward translation on the thoracic wall
    • Retraction (posterior, medial)/protraction (anterior, lateral) around the rounded thorax
  • Action by muscle group

Clinical Significance

See Also


  1. Kibler, W. Ben, and Aaron Sciascia. "Current concepts: scapular dyskinesis." British journal of sports medicine 44.5 (2010): 300-305.
  2. McClure PM, Michener LA, Sennett BJ, et al. Direct 3-dimensional measurement of scapular kinematics during dynamic movements in vivo. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2001;10:269–77
Created by:
John Kiel on 22 March 2020 17:44:36
Last edited:
22 March 2020 18:28:03