- Is one of two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve.
- It arises from the anterior divisions of the L4 to S3 nerve roots in the sacral plexus.
- It supplies the leg and foot with motor and sensory supply.
- It Passes down through the popliteal fossa running posterior to the popliteal vessels.
- passes between the heads of gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle.
- It then Emerges to pass under the flexor retinaculum in the tarsal tunnel.
- On reaching the medial malleolus it divides into three terminal branches.
- Muscular branches
- Medial sural cutaneous nerve
- Terminal branches
- Medial plantar nerve
- Lateral plantar nerve
- Medial calcaneal nerve
- Motor functions
- muscular branches in the posterior compartment of the thigh and leg.
- Sensory functions
- It provides cutaneous branches to posterior calf and sole of the foot.
- Articular branches to knee, ankle and foot joints.