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The tibia and fibula labeled[1]
  • General
    • Major weight bearing bone of the lower leg


  • Tibial plateau forms articular surface, articulates with the femur, to form the Knee Joint along with the patella
  • Tibial tuberosity is described below

Mid Shaft

  • Interosseus Membrane
    • Acts as a fibrous anchor between the tibia and Fibula
    • Runs along the length of both bones (lateral side of tibia)


  • Tibial plafond forms articular surface for the Ankle Joint
  • Medial malleolus contributes to medial stability

Gerdy's Tubercle

Tibial Tubercle

Pediatric Considerations

  • Proximal Tibial Physis
    • Contributes to longitudinal growth
    • Average growth is 9-10 mm per year[2]
    • Appears by 2 months, closes between ages 16 and 19[3]
  • Tibial Tubercle Physis
    • Apophysis, does not contribute to length of bone
    • Attachment site of the patellar tendon
    • Appears around age 10 to 12, closes around age 16 to 19[4]
  • Developmental Anatomy
    • Cartilage stage: occurs before a secondary ossification center appears at the tubercle
    • Apophyseal stage: secondary ossification center appears in girls (8-12), boys (9-14)
    • Epiphyseal stage: secondary ossification centers (proximal tibia, tubercle) merge into a bony tubercle adjacent to proximal tibial epiphysis


Vascular Supply


  • Needs to be updated

Clinical Significance



See Also


  1. Trajanović, M., et al. "Reverse engineering of the human fibula." 11th international scientific conference MMA. 2012.
  2. Mayer, Stephanie, Jay C. Albright, and Jason W. Stoneback. "Pediatric knee dislocations and physeal fractures about the knee." JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 23.9 (2015): 571-580.
  3. Herring, John A. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics: From the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children: From the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013.
  4. Schiller, Jonathan, Steven DeFroda, and Travis Blood. "Lower extremity avulsion fractures in the pediatric and adolescent athlete." JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 25.4 (2017): 251-259.
Created by:
John Kiel on 25 March 2021 16:42:55
Last edited:
22 March 2023 14:26:14