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Dial Test

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Other Names

Dial Test
  • External rotation test


Dial test performed with the patient in prone position with the knees flexed to 90° and 30°. The knees are flexed to 90° in the left photograph and 30° in the right photograph. [1]
  • Evaluate for posterolateral instability of the joint, specifically the Posterolateral Corner
  • Contents of posterolateral corner include:
    • Lateral Collateral Ligament
    • Popliteus complex
    • Popliteofibular ligament
    • Posterolateral capsule
  • The goal of the test is to the degree of external rotation at the knee


  • The patient should be prone with examiner at the foot of the bed
  • Knees flexed to 30° with hands on patients feet the examiner externally rotates the leg
  • The foot-thigh angle is measured and compared to the unaffected limb
  • The knees are then flexed to 90° and the external rotation is again performed
  • A positive test
    • Increase in external rotation, typically by more than 10° compared to the unaffected knee
    • Note that this test can often be "eye balled" and objective measurement is not necessarily required



  • Unknown

See Also


  1. Shon, Oog-Jin, Jae-Woo Park, and Beum-Jung Kim. "Current concepts of posterolateral corner injuries of the knee." Knee Surgery & Related Research 29.4 (2017): 256.
Created by:
John Kiel on 9 July 2019 13:19:56
Last edited:
13 September 2023 16:06:44