Regenerative Medicine (Main)
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- Alpha 2 Macroglobulin
- A major serum protease inhibitor, inhibits all classes of endoproteases
- Intra-articular injections could potentially slow cartilage damage following a traumatic knee injury by neutralizing cartilage catabolic degrading enzymes
- Autologous Conditioned Serum
- Aspiration of patients blood, followed by a period of incubation (conditioning), then centrifuge and injection
- Brand names: Orthokine and Regenokine
- Autologous Protein Solution
- A version of LR-PRP with a higher concentration of humoral factors
- Bone Marrow Aspiration Concentrate (BMC/BMAC)
- A concentrate of bone marrow aspiration (BMA) containing multiple cell types, including a small number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), typically created through a centrifugation process
- Cell-based medicinal product
- Medicinal product consisting of viable cells.
- These products may contain genetically modified human cells and can be combined with non cellular components
- Cell therapy
- Administration of living cells to a patient for the treatment of disease or condition
- Cell therapy product
- Biological product that contains or consists of substantially manipulated living cells/tissues that is administered to humans to treat, prevent, or diagnose a disease through the pharmacological, immunological, or metabolic action of its cells/tissues
- Embryonic stem cell
- Pluripotent cell derived from the undifferentiated inner cell mass of an embryo
- Human Platelet Lysate
- Growth factor-rich cell culture supplement derived from healthy donor human platelets
- Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC)
- Nonhematopoietic multipotent adult stem cell identified in multiple tissues that can differentiate into specialized stromal cells
- Reported to be present in bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, and muscle
- Has the capability to differentiate into specialized stromal cells of skeletal tissues such as tenocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes
- Also referred to as mesenchymal stromal stem cells
- Microfragmented Adipose Grafting
- Method of harvesting MSC
- The cells are processed without the use of enzymes or additives to concentrate the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells
- Name brands: Lipogems, Nanofat
- Use of biological substances to enhance biological healing of orthopedic injuries or alter the natural course of an orthopedic disease
- Perinatal products
- Perinatal-derived allogeneic biomaterials donated and recovered from healthy individuals
- E.g. Dehydrated Amniotic Tissue Injections, Umbilical Cord, Blood, Wharton's Jelly, etc.
- Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)
- Blood plasma enriched in platelets, which contains cytokines and growth factors in higher concentrations than in blood plasma
- Capable of developing into any of the 3 primary germ cell layers and therefore all cells of the adult body, but not extraembryonic tissue (ie, placenta)
- Hyperosmolar dextrose injection which triggers the inflammatory cascade and healing.
- The treatment targets fibroosseous junctions or entheses and well as intra-articular applications
- Regenerative Medicine
- Interdisciplinary therapeutic approach that aims to repair, replace, regenerate, and/or rejuvenate lost, damaged, or diseased cells, tissues, or organs to restore or establish normal form and function.
- Somatic cell
- Any cell that makes up a multicellular organism that is not a germinal, reproductive, or undifferentiated cell
- Stem cell
- Undifferentiated cell of multicellular organisms with the ability to carry out both self-renewal and asymmetric cell division and to provide cells that can differentiate into other cell types
- Stromal cells
- Nonhematopoietic connective tissue cell that indirectly influences and supports blood cell growth, typically derived from bone marrow.
- Stromal Vascular Fraction
- Adipose derived collection of heterogeneous cells and components, most notably: MSC, HSC, Treg Cells, Pericyte-EC, mast-cells, complex microvascular beds (fibroblasts, WBC, dendritic cells, intra-adventitial smooth muscular-like cells, etc.), and extracellular matrix
- Injectable HA-based products that reduce pain through shock absorption and decreased inflammation by arachidonic acid and IL1 inhibition
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- Luan Y, Kong L, Howell DR, Ilalov K, Fajardo M, Bai XH, et al. Inhibition of ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 degradation of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein by alpha-2-macroglobulin. Osteoarthritis & Cartilage. 2008;16(11):1413–20.
- Finnoff, Jonathan T. DO*; Awan, Tariq M. DO†; et al. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Position Statement: Principles for the Responsible Use of Regenerative Medicine in Sports Medicine, Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: November 2021 - Volume 31 - Issue 6 - p 530-541
- Hauser RA. Journal of prolotherapy international editorial board consensus statement on the use of prolotherapy for musculskeletal pain. J Prolotherapy. 2011;3:744–764.
- Tehranzadeh J, Booya F, Root J. Cartilage metabolism in osteoarthritis and the influence of viscosupplementation and steroid: a review. Acta Radiol. 2005;46:288–296.