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Regenerative Medicine Main

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Other Names



Risk Factors


  • Alpha 2 Macroglobulin
    • A major serum protease inhibitor, inhibits all classes of endoproteases[1]
    • Intra-articular injections could potentially slow cartilage damage following a traumatic knee injury by neutralizing cartilage catabolic degrading enzymes
  • Autologous Conditioned Serum
    • Aspiration of patients blood, followed by a period of incubation (conditioning), then centrifuge and injection
    • Brand names: Orthokine and Regenokine
  • Autologous Protein Solution
    • A version of LR-PRP with a higher concentration of humoral factors
  • Bone Marrow Aspiration Concentrate (BMC/BMAC)
    • A concentrate of bone marrow aspiration (BMA) containing multiple cell types, including a small number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), typically created through a centrifugation process[2]
  • Cell-based medicinal product
    • Medicinal product consisting of viable cells.
    • These products may contain genetically modified human cells and can be combined with non cellular components
  • Cell therapy
    • Administration of living cells to a patient for the treatment of disease or condition
  • Cell therapy product
    • Biological product that contains or consists of substantially manipulated living cells/tissues that is administered to humans to treat, prevent, or diagnose a disease through the pharmacological, immunological, or metabolic action of its cells/tissues
  • Embryonic stem cell
    • Pluripotent cell derived from the undifferentiated inner cell mass of an embryo
  • Human Platelet Lysate
    • Growth factor-rich cell culture supplement derived from healthy donor human platelets
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC)
    • Nonhematopoietic multipotent adult stem cell identified in multiple tissues that can differentiate into specialized stromal cells
    • Reported to be present in bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, and muscle
    • Has the capability to differentiate into specialized stromal cells of skeletal tissues such as tenocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes
    • Also referred to as mesenchymal stromal stem cells
  • Microfragmented Adipose Grafting
    • Method of harvesting MSC
    • The cells are processed without the use of enzymes or additives to concentrate the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells
    • Name brands: Lipogems, Nanofat
  • Orthobiologics
    • Use of biological substances to enhance biological healing of orthopedic injuries or alter the natural course of an orthopedic disease
  • Perinatal products
    • Perinatal-derived allogeneic biomaterials donated and recovered from healthy individuals
    • E.g. Dehydrated Amniotic Tissue Injections, Umbilical Cord, Blood, Wharton's Jelly, etc.
  • Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)
    • Blood plasma enriched in platelets, which contains cytokines and growth factors in higher concentrations than in blood plasma
  • Pluripotent
    • Capable of developing into any of the 3 primary germ cell layers and therefore all cells of the adult body, but not extraembryonic tissue (ie, placenta)
  • Prolotherapy
    • Hyperosmolar dextrose injection which triggers the inflammatory cascade and healing.
    • The treatment targets fibroosseous junctions or entheses and well as intra-articular applications[3]
  • Regenerative Medicine
    • Interdisciplinary therapeutic approach that aims to repair, replace, regenerate, and/or rejuvenate lost, damaged, or diseased cells, tissues, or organs to restore or establish normal form and function.
  • Somatic cell
    • Any cell that makes up a multicellular organism that is not a germinal, reproductive, or undifferentiated cell
  • Stem cell
    • Undifferentiated cell of multicellular organisms with the ability to carry out both self-renewal and asymmetric cell division and to provide cells that can differentiate into other cell types
  • Stromal cells
    • Nonhematopoietic connective tissue cell that indirectly influences and supports blood cell growth, typically derived from bone marrow.
  • Stromal Vascular Fraction
    • Adipose derived collection of heterogeneous cells and components, most notably: MSC, HSC, Treg Cells, Pericyte-EC, mast-cells, complex microvascular beds (fibroblasts, WBC, dendritic cells, intra-adventitial smooth muscular-like cells, etc.), and extracellular matrix
  • Viscosupplement
    • Injectable HA-based products that reduce pain through shock absorption and decreased inflammation by arachidonic acid and IL1 inhibition[4]

Clinical Features






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See Also


  1. Luan Y, Kong L, Howell DR, Ilalov K, Fajardo M, Bai XH, et al. Inhibition of ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12 degradation of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein by alpha-2-macroglobulin. Osteoarthritis & Cartilage. 2008;16(11):1413–20.
  2. Finnoff, Jonathan T. DO*; Awan, Tariq M. DO†; et al. American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Position Statement: Principles for the Responsible Use of Regenerative Medicine in Sports Medicine, Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: November 2021 - Volume 31 - Issue 6 - p 530-541
  3. Hauser RA. Journal of prolotherapy international editorial board consensus statement on the use of prolotherapy for musculskeletal pain. J Prolotherapy. 2011;3:744–764.
  4. Tehranzadeh J, Booya F, Root J. Cartilage metabolism in osteoarthritis and the influence of viscosupplementation and steroid: a review. Acta Radiol. 2005;46:288–296.
Created by:
John Kiel on 17 October 2019 01:23:22
Last edited:
17 May 2022 01:30:16