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Synephrine

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Other Names


General

A stimulant which athletes may use due to perceived benefits such as increased energy, stamina, muscle strength, and fat loss.


Performance Enhancing Effects

* increases metabolism and energy expenditure [1]

Medical Indications

  • asthma and allergies due to decongestant properties and its effect as a bronchial smooth muscle relaxer

Contraindications


Adverse Reactions

  • Similar in structure to methamphetamine and can present acutely with a sympathomimetic toxidrome.
    • Effects are much less potent and longer acting than amphetamines.
  • Side effects include anxiety, tremors, psychosis, irritability, headache, and dizziness.
  • Overdose can cause confusion, hallucinations, convulsions, and difficulty with respiration.
    • The most serious potential signs and symptoms of overdose include rapid, irregular heartbeat and significantly elevated blood pressure.

Pharmacology

  • acts on the central nervous system by increasing the release of noradrenaline as well as stimulating alpha and beta receptors

WADA Considerations

  • Included in the 2019 Monitoring Program
    • Is not currently considered a Prohibited Substance
  • Synephrine is banned by the NCAA [2]

Testing

  • Synephrine may cause a positive amphetamine result on a urine drug screen because of their similar chemical structures.
    • A confirmation test is available which tests for synephrine if the initial urine sample reveals a positive amphetamine result. [3]

See Also


References

  1. Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M. A review of the human clinical studies involving citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int J Med Sci. 2012. doi:10.7150/ijms.4446
  2. Opss.org. (2019). Synephrine and drug testing | opss. [online] Available at: https://www.opss.org/article/synephrine-and-drug-testing [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019].
  3. Opss.org. (2019). Synephrine and drug testing | opss. [online] Available at: https://www.opss.org/article/synephrine-and-drug-testing [Accessed 21 Jul. 2019].
Created by:
Khashayar ( Khash ) Farzam on 12 July 2019 02:57:04
Last edited:
21 July 2019 17:25:40